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Sterilization
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For indirect heating, the plate and frame heat exchanger is generally more effective than the shell and tube heat transfer due to its
larger heat transfer area
more number of plates
lesser cost
smaller heat transfer area
The sterilization method depends
NONE OF THESE
volume and feed rate
Both (a) and (b)
nature of additive
The specific death rate of an organism can be expressed as
2.0.3/ln2
D/ln2
ln 2/D
ln2
The overall del factor (Δ) may be represented as
Δoverall = Δheating - Δholding- Δcooling
Δoverall = Δheating - Δholding+ Δcooling
Δoverall = Δheating + Δholding+ Δcooling
Δoverall = Δheating + Δholding- Δcooling
The X90 value for a filtration system is
the time required to reduce microbial population by 90%
the depth of the filter required to reduce population by 99%
the depth required to reduce population by 90%
the time required to traverse survivor curve by one log cycle.
The typical size of particles collected by diffusion mechanism is
<0.25μm
<0.5μm
<1μm
<0.75μm
The highest temperature which appears to be feasible for batch sterilization is
130°C
100°C
121°C
105°C
Analogus to the molecular diffusion, the x-directional flux of microorganisms suspended in a medium due to the axial mixing can be represented as (where Jn is flux component 'n', cn is concentration of'n')
Jn = -D dcn/dx
Jn = D dcn/dx
Jn = dcn/dx
Jn = -dcn/dx
The radius of the filter with a depth of 14 cm required for a volumetric airflow rate of 10 m3/min is approximately
1.6 m
0.6 m
6 m
3
The heat conduction in dry air is
NONE OF THESE
less rapid than in steam
similar to steam
more rapid than in steam
The reduction of number of cells from 1010 to one will result into the del factor (Δ) of
1
23
10
103
The filter material used for air filtration system is/are
glass fibre
All of the above
glass wool
norite
The collection efficiency by interception increases with the
increasing particle size
Both (a) and (b)
increasing particle diameter
increasing air flow velocity
For the turbulent flow, the dispersion coefficient is correlated as a function of
Grashof number
Schmidt number
Reynolds number
Sherwood number
The relationship between the del factor, temperature and time is given as
Δ = 1/(A.t. e-E/RT)
Δ = A.t. eE/RT
Δ = A.t.T
Δ = A.t. e-E/RT
The collection efficiency by diffusion increases with
increasing particle size
decreasing particle size
Both (a) and (b)
decreasing air velocity
The moist heat is more effective than the dry heat because the intrinsic heat resistance of vegetative cells is greatly
increased in a dry state
increased in a wet state
decreased in a wet state
decreased in a dry state
The collection efficiency by the inertial impaction mechanism is the function of
Stokes and Schmidt number
Stokes and Grashof number
Stokes and Reynolds number
Grashoff and Reynolds number
Typical aeration rates for aerobic fermentation are
1.0 - 1.5 vvm
0.5 - 1.0 vvm
1.5 - 2.0 vvm
0 - 0.5 vvm
For laminar flow of Newtonian fluid through a smooth round pipe, the ratio of average fluid velocity to the maximum velocity is
0.37
0.75
0.5
0.87
1
2
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